Interoception and Mental Health: A Roadmap

Open AccessPublished:December 28, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2017.12.004

      Abstract

      Interoception refers to the process by which the nervous system senses, interprets, and integrates signals originating from within the body, providing a moment-by-moment mapping of the body’s internal landscape across conscious and unconscious levels. Interoceptive signaling has been considered a component process of reflexes, urges, feelings, drives, adaptive responses, and cognitive and emotional experiences, highlighting its contributions to the maintenance of homeostatic functioning, body regulation, and survival. Dysfunction of interoception is increasingly recognized as an important component of different mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, addictive disorders, and somatic symptom disorders. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges have made it difficult for interoceptive constructs to be broadly applied in mental health research and treatment settings. In November 2016, the Laureate Institute for Brain Research organized the first Interoception Summit, a gathering of interoception experts from around the world, with the goal of accelerating progress in understanding the role of interoception in mental health. The discussions at the meeting were organized around four themes: interoceptive assessment, interoceptive integration, interoceptive psychopathology, and the generation of a roadmap that could serve as a guide for future endeavors. This review article presents an overview of the emerging consensus generated by the meeting.

      Keywords

      Interoception refers collectively to the processing of internal bodily stimuli by the nervous system. Parcellation of the nervous system’s processing of sensory signals into interoception, proprioception, and exteroception began more than 100 years ago (
      • Sherrington C.S.
      The Integrative Action of the Nervous System.
      ), although it was predated by interest in linking body–brain interactions with conscious experience (
      • Cameron O.G.
      Visceral Sensory Neuroscience: Interoception.
      ,
      • Adam G.
      Interoception and Behaviour.
      ). Scientific interest in interoception has fluctuated (Figure 1A). During the 1980s, biological psychiatry was inundated with observations of interoceptive disturbances in panic disorder (
      • Gorman J.M.
      • Fyer A.F.
      • Gliklich J.
      • King D.
      • Klein D.F.
      Effect of sodium lactate on patients with panic disorder and mitral valve prolapse.
      ,
      • Pohl R.
      • Yeragani V.K.
      • Balon R.
      • Rainey J.M.
      • Lycaki H.
      • Ortiz A.
      • et al.
      Isoproterenol-induced panic attacks.
      ,
      • Woods S.W.
      • Charney D.S.
      • Loke J.
      • Goodman W.K.
      • Redmond D.E.
      • Heninger G.R.
      Carbon dioxide sensitivity in panic anxiety: Ventilatory and anxiogenic response to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects and patients with panic anxiety before and after alprazolam treatment.
      ,
      • van den Hout M.A.
      • van der Molen G.M.
      • Griez E.
      • Lousberg H.
      • Nansen A.
      Reduction of CO2-induced anxiety in patients with panic attacks after repeated CO2 exposure.
      ), although the trend receded after it became clear that the etiological mechanism was broader than a single molecular receptor target (
      • Margraf J.
      • Ehlers A.
      • Roth W.T.
      Sodium lactate infusions and panic attacks: A review and critique.
      ). Recent years have witnessed a surge of interest on the topic of interoception due in part to findings highlighting its integral role in emotional experience, self-regulation, decision making, and consciousness. Importantly, interoception is not limited to conscious perception or even unique to the human species. From this perspective, interdisciplinary efforts to understand different features of interoception have been essential for advancing progress in cognitive and clinical neuroscience (Figure 1B).
      Figure thumbnail gr1
      Figure 1(A) Number of English language publications per year on interoception from PubMed, PsycINFO, and Institute for Science Information Web of Knowledge. The timeline starts in 1905, one year before the publication of Charles Sherrington’s book, The Integrative Action of the Nervous System, which first defined the concept of interoception. Key historical events relevant to interoception science are superimposed. (B) Publications per year on interoception vs. those investigating features of interoception that do not specifically refer to the term. These latter publications are more numerous and arise mainly from basic neuroscience, physiology, and subspecialty disciplines within the biomedical field. Note the use of a logarithmic scale in the second panel.
      [Figure reproduced and modified with permission from Khalsa and Lapidus (
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Lapidus R.C.
      Can interoception improve the pragmatic search for biomarkers in psychiatry?.
      ).]

      Assessment

       Body Systems of Interoception

      Interoceptive processing occurs across all major biological systems involved in maintaining bodily homeostasis, including the cardiovascular (
      • Oppenheimer S.
      • Cechetto D.
      The insular cortex and the regulation of cardiac function.
      ,
      • Shivkumar K.
      • Ajijola O.A.
      • Anand I.
      • Armour J.A.
      • Chen P.S.
      • Esler M.
      • et al.
      Clinical neurocardiology defining the value of neuroscience-based cardiovascular therapeutics.
      ), pulmonary (
      • von Leupoldt A.
      • Chan P.Y.
      • Esser R.W.
      • Davenport P.W.
      Emotions and neural processing of respiratory sensations investigated with respiratory-related evoked potentials.
      ), gastrointestinal (
      • Mayer E.A.
      • Naliboff B.D.
      • Craig A.D.
      Neuroimaging of the brain–gut axis: From basic understanding to treatment of functional GI disorders.
      ,
      • Kaye W.H.
      • Fudge J.L.
      • Paulus M.
      New insights into symptoms and neurocircuit function of anorexia nervosa.
      ), genitourinary (
      • Drake M.J.
      • Fowler C.J.
      • Griffiths D.
      • Mayer E.
      • Paton J.F.
      • Birder L.
      Neural control of the lower urinary and gastrointestinal tracts: Supraspinal CNS mechanisms.
      ), nociceptive (
      • Simons L.E.
      • Elman I.
      • Borsook D.
      Psychological processing in chronic pain: A neural systems approach.
      ), chemosensory (
      • Nattie E.
      • Li A.
      Central chemoreceptors: Locations and functions.
      ), osmotic (
      • Stevenson R.J.
      • Mahmut M.
      • Rooney K.
      Individual differences in the interoceptive states of hunger, fullness and thirst.
      ), thermoregulatory (
      • Fealey R.D.
      Interoception and autonomic nervous system reflexes thermoregulation.
      ), visceral
      Visceroception has classically referred to the perception of bodily signals arising specifically from visceral organs, such as the heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, and bladder, along with other internal organs in the trunk of the body (
      • Janig W.
      Neurobiology of visceral afferent neurons: Neuroanatomy, functions, organ regulations and sensations.
      ). It did not include organs such as the skin and skeletal muscle, in contrast to contemporary definitions of interoception that typically encompasses signals from both the viscera and all other tissues that relay a signal to the central nervous system about the current state of the body, including the skin and skeletal/smooth muscle fibers, via lamina I spinothalamic afferents (
      • Craig A.D.
      How do you feel? Interoception: The sense of the physiological condition of the body.
      ,
      • Cameron O.G.
      Interoception: The inside story—A model for psychosomatic processes.
      ,
      • Olausson H.
      • Lamarre Y.
      • Backlund H.
      • Morin C.
      • Wallin B.G.
      • Starck G.
      • et al.
      Unmyelinated tactile afferents signal touch and project to insular cortex.
      ).
      (
      • Janig W.
      Neurobiology of visceral afferent neurons: Neuroanatomy, functions, organ regulations and sensations.
      ), immune (
      • Capuron L.
      • Miller A.H.
      Immune system to brain signaling: Neuropsychopharmacological implications.
      ,
      • Irwin M.R.
      • Cole S.W.
      Reciprocal regulation of the neural and innate immune systems.
      ), and autonomic systems (
      • Critchley H.D.
      • Harrison N.A.
      Visceral influences on brain and behavior.
      ,
      • Dworkin B.R.
      Interoception.
      ) (Table 1). There has been relatively little focus overall on the integration across bodily systems; thus, it is not surprising that most investigations of the topic have been siloed within distinct research areas or scientific disciplines [see (
      • Tsakiris M.
      • Critchley H.
      Interoception beyond homeostasis: Affect, cognition and mental health.
      ,
      • Lane R.D.
      • Wager T.D.
      Introduction to a special issue of NeuroImage on brain–body medicine.
      ) for noteworthy exceptions].
      Table 1Physiological Processes Often Ascribed to Interoception
      Nonpainful
       Cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal (esophageal, gastric, intestinal, colorectal), bladder, hunger, thirst, blood/serum (pH, osmolality, glucose), temperature, vasomotor flush, air hunger, muscle tension, shudder, itch, tickle, genital sensation, sensual touch, fatigue
      Painful
       Visceral: kidney stone, pleuritic, angina, pericardial, bowel ischemia, pelvic, sickle crisis
       Somatic: abscess/boil, bruising, myalgia, inflammation (systemic/laceration), headache
       Skeletal: fractured/bruised bone, stress fracture, inflammatory/mechanical joint pain
      Several key distinctions are that interoceptive sensing 1) may be painful or nonpainful, 2) occurs across the spectra of high/low arousal and negative/positive valence, 3) usually occurs outside of conscious awareness (with the exception of pain sensations), and 4) is often (but not always) consciously experienced during instances of homeostatic perturbation.

       Features of Interoception

      Interoception is not a simple process but rather has several facets (
      • Vaitl D.
      Interoception.
      ). The act of sensing, interpreting, and integrating information about the state of inner body systems can be related to different elements such as interoceptive attention, detection, discrimination, accuracy, insight, sensibility, and self-report (Table 2). However, most interoceptive processes occur outside the realm of conscious awareness. Consciously experienced elements are measured clinically via subjective report, and there are few observable interoceptive signs (e.g., heart rate, respiration rate, pupillary dilation, flushing, perspiration, piloerection, nociceptive reflexes) (Table 3). Experimental approaches can quantify different body systems and features of interoceptive processing. Nevertheless, these measures are only partially overlapping and likely reflect somewhat distinct neural processes (
      • Baranauskas M.
      • Grabauskaite A.
      • Griskova-Bulanova I.
      Brain responses and self-reported indices of interoception: Heartbeat evoked potentials are inversely associated with worrying about body sensations.
      ). Access to the full range of interoceptive signals often involves invasive approaches, which tend to elicit physiological perturbations and index more objectively measurable features (
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Rudrauf D.
      • Sandesara C.
      • Olshansky B.
      • Tranel D.
      Bolus isoproterenol infusions provide a reliable method for assessing interoceptive awareness.
      ). However, many insights have been gained by the application of noninvasive approaches within neuroscience and psychological assessment contexts (
      • Critchley H.D.
      • Wiens S.
      • Rotshtein P.
      • Ohman A.
      • Dolan R.J.
      Neural systems supporting interoceptive awareness.
      ) (see “Eavesdropping on Brain–Body Communication” section below).
      Table 2Features of Interoceptive Awareness
      FeatureDefinition
      AttentionObserving internal body sensations
      DetectionPresence or absence of conscious report
      MagnitudePerceived intensity
      DiscriminationLocalize sensation to a specific channel or organ system and differentiate it from other sensations
      Accuracy (Sensitivity)Correct and precise monitoring
      InsightMetacognitive evaluation of experience/performance (e.g., confidence–accuracy correspondence)
      SensibilitySelf-perceived tendency to focus on interoceptive stimuli (trait measure)
      Self-report ScalesPsychometric assessment via questionnaire (state/trait measure)
      For some examples of paradigms assessing each feature, see Supplemental Table S1.
      Table 3Diagnostic Symptoms and Clinical Signs Indicating Interoceptive Dysfunction in Some Psychiatric Disorders
      Psychiatric DisorderSymptomsSignsSample Studies
      Panic DisorderPalpitations, chest pain, dyspnea, choking, nausea, dizziness, flushing, depersonalization/derealizationElevated heart rate and/or blood pressure, exaggerated escape, startle, and flinching
      • Pohl R.
      • Yeragani V.K.
      • Balon R.
      • Rainey J.M.
      • Lycaki H.
      • Ortiz A.
      • et al.
      Isoproterenol-induced panic attacks.
      ,
      • Gorman J.M.
      • Kent J.
      • Martinez J.
      • Browne S.
      • Coplan J.
      • Papp L.A.
      Physiological changes during carbon dioxide inhalation in patients with panic disorder, major depression, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Evidence for a central fear mechanism.
      ,
      • Stein M.B.
      • Asmundson G.J.
      Autonomic function in panic disorder: Cardiorespiratory and plasma catecholamine responsivity to multiple challenges of the autonomic nervous system.
      DepressionIncreased or decreased appetite, fatigue, lethargyWeight gain, weight loss, psychomotor slowing
      • Simmons W.K.
      • Burrows K.
      • Avery J.A.
      • Kerr K.L.
      • Bodurka J.
      • Savage C.R.
      • et al.
      Depression-related increases and decreases in appetite: Dissociable patterns of aberrant activity in reward and interoceptive neurocircuitry.
      ,
      • Nierenberg A.A.
      • Pava J.A.
      • Clancy K.
      • Rosenbaum J.F.
      • Fava M.
      Are neurovegetative symptoms stable in relapsing or recurrent atypical depressive episodes?.
      Eating DisordersHunger insensitivity, food anxiety, gastrointestinal complaintsSevere food restriction, severe weight loss, binging, purging, compulsive exercise
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Craske M.G.
      • Li W.
      • Vangala S.
      • Strober M.
      • Feusner J.D.
      Altered interoceptive awareness in anorexia nervosa: Effects of meal anticipation, consumption and bodily arousal.
      ,
      • Berner L.A.
      • Simmons A.N.
      • Wierenga C.E.
      • Bischoff-Grethe A.
      • Paulus M.P.
      • Bailer U.F.
      • et al.
      Altered interoceptive activation before, during, and after aversive breathing load in women remitted from anorexia nervosa.
      Somatic Symptom DisordersMultiple current physical and nociceptive symptomsMedical observations do not correspond with symptom report
      • Dimsdale J.E.
      • Creed F.
      • Escobar J.
      • Sharpe M.
      • Wulsin L.
      • Barsky A.
      • et al.
      Somatic symptom disorder: An important change in DSM.
      ,
      • Barsky A.J.
      • Peekna H.M.
      • Borus J.F.
      Somatic symptom reporting in women and men.
      Substance Use DisordersPhysical symptoms associated with craving, intoxication, and/or withdrawal (drug specific)Elevated/decreased: heart rate, respiratory rate, and/or blood pressure, pupil dilation/constriction, others (drug specific)
      • Goldstein R.Z.
      • Craig A.D.
      • Bechara A.
      • Garavan H.
      • Childress A.R.
      • Paulus M.P.
      • et al.
      The neurocircuitry of impaired insight in drug addiction.
      ,
      • Naqvi N.H.
      • Bechara A.
      The insula and drug addiction: An interoceptive view of pleasure, urges, and decision-making.
      ,
      • Paulus M.P.
      • Stewart J.L.
      Interoception and drug addiction.
      Posttraumatic Stress DisorderAutonomic hypervigilance, depersonalization/derealizationExaggerated startle, flinching, and/or escape responses, elevated heart rate and/or blood pressure
      • Glenn D.E.
      • Acheson D.T.
      • Geyer M.A.
      • Nievergelt C.M.
      • Baker D.G.
      • Risbrough V.B.
      • et al.
      High and low threshold for startle reactivity associated with PTSD symptoms but not PTSD risk: Evidence from a prospective study of active duty Marines.
      Generalized Anxiety DisorderMuscle tension, headaches, fatigue, gastrointestinal complaints, painTrembling, twitching, shaking, sweating, nausea, exaggerated startle
      • Pluess M.
      • Conrad A.
      • Wilhelm F.H.
      Muscle tension in generalized anxiety disorder: A critical review of the literature.
      ,
      • Rapaport M.H.
      • Schettler P.
      • Larson E.R.
      • Edwards S.A.
      • Dunlop B.W.
      • Rakofsky J.J.
      • et al.
      Acute Swedish massage monotherapy successfully remediates symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder: A proof-of-concept, randomized controlled study.
      Depersonalization/Derealization DisorderDetachment from one’s body, head fullness, tingling, lightheadednessPhysiological hyporeactivity to emotional stimuli
      • Sedeno L.
      • Couto B.
      • Melloni M.
      • Canales-Johnson A.
      • Yoris A.
      • Baez S.
      • et al.
      How do you feel when you can’t feel your body? Interoception, functional connectivity and emotional processing in depersonalization-derealization disorder.
      ,
      • Schulz A.
      • Koster S.
      • Beutel M.E.
      • Schachinger H.
      • Vogele C.
      • Rost S.
      • et al.
      Altered patterns of heartbeat-evoked potentials in depersonalization/derealization disorder: Neurophysiological evidence for impaired cortical representation of bodily signals.
      Autism Spectrum DisordersSkin hypersensitivitySelective clothing preferences
      • Garfinkel S.N.
      • Tiley C.
      • O’Keeffe S.
      • Harrison N.A.
      • Seth A.K.
      • Critchley H.D.
      Discrepancies between dimensions of interoception in autism: Implications for emotion and anxiety.
      ,
      • Schauder K.B.
      • Mash L.E.
      • Bryant L.K.
      • Cascio C.J.
      Interoceptive ability and body awareness in autism spectrum disorder.
      ,
      • Quattrocki E.
      • Friston K.
      Autism, oxytocin and interoception.

       Importance of an Interoceptive Taxonomy

      There is no generally agreed-on taxonomy for interoception science. Variable definitions have made it difficult to identify the features under investigation, let alone evaluate the quality of the findings. Based on the number of physiological systems involved, it could be questioned whether the terms “interoception” and “interoceptive awareness” are too broad. Interoceptive awareness is an umbrella term that was first used to describe a self-report subscale (
      • Garner D.M.
      • Olmstead M.P.
      • Polivy J.
      Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia-nervosa and bulimia.
      ), but it has subsequently been used to encompass any (or all) of the different interoception features accessible to conscious self-report. Researchers from different fields developed definitions that only partially overlapped, reflecting the need for operationalization in neuroscience (
      • Garfinkel S.N.
      • Seth A.K.
      • Barrett A.B.
      • Suzuki K.
      • Critchley H.D.
      Knowing your own heart: Distinguishing interoceptive accuracy from interoceptive awareness.
      ,
      • Forkmann T.
      • Scherer A.
      • Meessen J.
      • Michal M.
      • Schachinger H.
      • Vogele C.
      • et al.
      Making sense of what you sense: Disentangling interoceptive awareness, sensibility and accuracy.
      ) and clinical practice (
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Lapidus R.C.
      Can interoception improve the pragmatic search for biomarkers in psychiatry?.
      ,
      • Mehling W.
      Differentiating attention styles and regulatory aspects of self-reported interoceptive sensibility.
      ). Here we develop a more coherent nomenclature for its various components (Table 2), mirroring developments in other fields, especially pain (
      International Association for the Study of Pain
      IASP taxonomy.
      ). One key aspect is the importance of distinguishing sensation (i.e., the raw signals conveyed by bodily sensors) from perception (
      • Stephan K.E.
      • Manjaly Z.M.
      • Mathys C.D.
      • Weber L.A.
      • Paliwal S.
      • Gard T.
      • et al.
      Allostatic self-efficacy: A metacognitive theory of dyshomeostasis-induced fatigue and depression.
      ,
      • Petzschner F.H.
      • Weber L.A.E.
      • Gard T.
      • Stephan K.E.
      Computational psychosomatics and computational psychiatry: Toward a joint framework for differential diagnosis.
      ). We return to this theme below.

       Multilevel Investigations

      While interoception research to date has typically focused on single organ systems, an expanded approach that assesses multiple interoceptive organ systems and/or elements is needed. Examples include targeting numerous interoceptive features simultaneously and employing different tasks that converge on the same feature (e.g., combining top-down assessments of interoceptive attention with bottom-up perturbation approaches in the same individual) (Figure 2A).
      Figure thumbnail gr2
      Figure 2(A) Cardiac interoceptive processing measures and feature loading. This illustrates how the most commonly used heartbeat perception tasks differentially measure interoceptive features. [Figure reproduced and modified with permission from Khalsa and Lapidus
      (
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Lapidus R.C.
      Can interoception improve the pragmatic search for biomarkers in psychiatry?.
      )
      .] (B) Multisystem interoceptive processing measures and feature loadings: Example of hypothetical approaches to measuring interoceptive processing across multiple systems. Approaches that perturb the state of the body are recommended, as are convergent approaches such as combined assessments of interoceptive attention and perturbation. (C) Central neural integration of interoceptive rhythms. Interoceptive rhythms vary considerably across the different systems of the body. They exhibit complex characteristics and are hierarchically integrated within discrete regions of the central nervous system. [Figure modified, with permission, from Petzschner et al.
      (
      • Petzschner F.H.
      • Weber L.A.E.
      • Gard T.
      • Stephan K.E.
      Computational psychosomatics and computational psychiatry: Toward a joint framework for differential diagnosis.
      )
      .] (D) Interoceptive rhythms vary in both amplitude and frequency. The top trace illustrates a hypothetical example of an amplitude modulation signal superimposed on a static frequency. The middle trace illustrates a hypothetical frequency modulation signal superimposed on a static amplitude. The bottom trace illustrates a hypothetical signal change involving both amplitude and frequency modulations that are temporally correlated. GI, gastrointestinal; GU, genitourinary.

       Sensing Perturbations

      The inner and outer worlds of the body constantly fluctuate. The nervous system monitors these environmental changes and responds adaptively in order to maintain a homeostatic balance and promote survival. Because psychiatric disorders often promote or reflect the development of chronic homeostatic and allostatic disturbances (
      • Sterling P.
      Homeostasis vs allostasis: Implications for brain function and mental disorders.
      ), there is a need for methods capable of eliciting homeostatic perturbations in controlled settings, especially those assessing subjective and behavioral responses to valence and arousal deviations. However, interoception is not simply about afferent processing. The brain’s constant monitoring of the body occurs in service of optimizing homeostatic regulation. This efferent limb is understudied (
      • Schulz A.
      • Vogele C.
      Interoception and stress.
      ), and paradigms that can effectively measure visceromotor outputs will be critical to establish sensitive assays of dysfunctional interoception and homeostatic regulation (e.g., detection of visceromotor-efferent neural signals controlling baroreflex sensitivity during modulation of visceral-afferent input by sympathetic drugs). The reliability and validity of methods should be rigorously established.

      Integration

       Interoception and Domain Specificity Within the Brain

      There are fundamentally differing ways to interpret the evolution of brain and body signaling in humans. The processing of interoceptive input could be domain specific, with modular processing occurring in specialized, encapsulated neural circuits [e.g., cardiac, respiratory, urinary, genital, chemical, hormonal; see (
      • Spunt R.P.
      • Adolphs R.
      A new look at domain specificity: Insights from social neuroscience.
      ) for a review of domain specificity] or functionally coupled (e.g., cardiorespiratory, genitourinary, chemohormonal) and integrated within a single neural circuit. Understanding the adaptive origins and functions of interoceptive domain specificity (if present) could tell us how the implementation and deployment of interoceptive signals by the nervous system contributes to disordered mental health. Because interoceptive signaling involves afferent and efferent inputs across multiple hierarchies within the autonomic and central nervous systems, identifying where and how information processing dysfunctions negatively affect mental health represents a challenging problem.

       Neural Pathways of Interoception

      Several pathways have been implicated in the neural processing of interoceptive signals, beginning with a rich interface between autonomic afferents and the central nervous system. Relay pathways involve primarily spinal, vagal, and glossopharyngeal afferents, with multiple levels of processing and integration in autonomic ganglia and spinal cord (
      • Shivkumar K.
      • Ajijola O.A.
      • Anand I.
      • Armour J.A.
      • Chen P.S.
      • Esler M.
      • et al.
      Clinical neurocardiology defining the value of neuroscience-based cardiovascular therapeutics.
      ,
      • Janig W.
      Neurobiology of visceral afferent neurons: Neuroanatomy, functions, organ regulations and sensations.
      ,
      • Critchley H.D.
      • Harrison N.A.
      Visceral influences on brain and behavior.
      ,
      • Craig A.D.
      How do you feel? Interoception: The sense of the physiological condition of the body.
      ). Several brainstem (nucleus of the solitary tract, parabrachial nucleus, and periaqueductal gray), subcortical (thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala), and cortical regions (insula and somatosensory cortices) represent key afferent processing regions (
      • Critchley H.D.
      • Harrison N.A.
      Visceral influences on brain and behavior.
      ,
      • Hassanpour M.S.
      • Simmons W.K.
      • Feinstein J.S.
      • Luo Q.
      • Lapidus R.
      • Bodurka J.
      • et al.
      The insular cortex dynamically maps changes in cardiorespiratory interoception.
      ,
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Rudrauf D.
      • Feinstein J.S.
      • Tranel D.
      The pathways of interoceptive awareness.
      ). A complementary set of regions involved in visceromotor actions represents key efferent processing regions, including the anterior insula, anterior cingulate, subgenual cingulate, orbitofrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, supplementary motor, and premotor areas (
      • Seth A.K.
      • Suzuki K.
      • Critchley H.D.
      An interoceptive predictive coding model of conscious presence.
      ,
      • Barrett L.F.
      • Simmons W.K.
      Interoceptive predictions in the brain.
      ,
      • Dum R.P.
      • Levinthal D.J.
      • Strick P.L.
      Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla.
      ). It is noteworthy that these neural regions coincide closely with other sensory processing systems, especially the nociceptive and affective systems. The degree to which these represent distinct or overlapping systems is currently unclear.

       Linking Paradigms Across Units of Analysis

      A particular challenge when examining interoception is the fact that afferent sensory signals are integrated on several levels (peripherally, within the spinal cord, and supraspinally) to form sets of interoceptive maps across different body systems. The brain appears to integrate information representing particular states of multiple systems simultaneously (cardiac, respiratory, chemical, hormonal, nociceptive, etc.) (
      • Craig A.D.
      How do you feel? Interoception: The sense of the physiological condition of the body.
      ), and it is imperative to be able to model and comparatively evaluate such mappings (Figure 2B). This poses many challenges. One approach might be to apply measures that assess multiple organ systems or interoceptive features simultaneously [see (
      • Hassanpour M.S.
      • Simmons W.K.
      • Feinstein J.S.
      • Luo Q.
      • Lapidus R.
      • Bodurka J.
      • et al.
      The insular cortex dynamically maps changes in cardiorespiratory interoception.
      ,
      • von Leupoldt A.
      • Sommer T.
      • Kegat S.
      • Baumann H.J.
      • Klose H.
      • Dahme B.
      • et al.
      Dyspnea and pain share emotion-related brain network.
      ,
      • De Cort K.
      • Schroijen M.
      • Hurlemann R.
      • Claassen S.
      • Hoogenhout J.
      • Van den Bergh O.
      • et al.
      Modeling the development of panic disorder with interoceptive conditioning.
      )] or to record activity across the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral organs (
      • Khan H.S.
      • Stroman P.W.
      Inter-individual differences in pain processing investigated by functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brainstem and spinal cord.
      ). However, it is also possible that multisystem assessments may reduce specificity for certain disorders and therefore may be unnecessary. For example, some patients with panic disorder may experience dyspnea but not palpitations. Localizing and then targeting the dysfunctional interoceptive domain would become more useful than broad multisystem interventions.

       Timing and Rhythm in Interoceptive Circuits

      The physiological timescales and amplitudes of interoceptive signaling vary dramatically (e.g., heart rate [0.5–3.3 Hz], respiratory rate [0.08–1 Hz], gastric contractility [0.05–0.1 Hz], urinary frequency [0.000045–0.00012 Hz]), with even slower changes in humoral mediators (
      • Savitz J.
      • Harrison N.A.
      Interoception and inflammation in psychiatric disorders.
      ) (Figure 2C, D). They also vary across individuals, and over the life span (e.g., increased heart rates in infants/children). Despite the variance, the brain tracks such changes in similar subregions, including the insula, somatosensory cortices, cingulate, amygdala, thalamus, and brainstem (
      • Hassanpour M.S.
      • Simmons W.K.
      • Feinstein J.S.
      • Luo Q.
      • Lapidus R.
      • Bodurka J.
      • et al.
      The insular cortex dynamically maps changes in cardiorespiratory interoception.
      ,
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Rudrauf D.
      • Feinstein J.S.
      • Tranel D.
      The pathways of interoceptive awareness.
      ,
      • Gray M.A.
      • Taggart P.
      • Sutton P.M.
      • Groves D.
      • Holdright D.R.
      • Bradbury D.
      • et al.
      A cortical potential reflecting cardiac function.
      ,
      • Aziz Q.
      • Thompson D.G.
      • Ng V.W.
      • Hamdy S.
      • Sarkar S.
      • Brammer M.J.
      • et al.
      Cortical processing of human somatic and visceral sensation.
      ,
      • Wang G.J.
      • Tomasi D.
      • Backus W.
      • Wang R.
      • Telang F.
      • Geliebter A.
      • et al.
      Gastric distention activates satiety circuitry in the human brain.
      ). Temporal synchrony or dyssynchrony between these systems may affect interoceptive experiences, affect, and behavior, although the exact mechanisms require further study (
      • Wittmann M.
      The inner experience of time.
      ). Repetitive events are another important element for learning, and while there are numerous classic studies on visceral learning at the peripheral organ system level (
      • Ádám G.
      Visceral Perception: Understanding Internal Cognition.
      ,
      • Dworkin B.R.
      Learning and Physiological Regulation.
      ), we know little about the central mapping of learned visceral memories, especially in psychiatric disorders (
      • DeVille D.C.
      • Kerr K.L.
      • Avery J.A.
      • Burrows K.
      • Bodurka J.
      • Feinstein J.S.
      • et al.
      The neural bases of interoceptive encoding and recall in healthy adults and adults with depression.
      ).

       How Can Animal Research Improve the Understanding of Human Interoceptive Processing?

      Although the inability to measure the subjective state of animals results in indirect inferences, well-established tasks exist [e.g., conditioned interoceptive place preference (
      • Schechter M.D.
      • Calcagnetti D.J.
      Continued trends in the conditioned place preference literature from 1992 to 1996, inclusive, with a cross-indexed bibliography.
      ) and odor aversion (
      • Haroutunian V.
      • Campbell B.A.
      Emergence of interoceptive and exteroceptive control of behavior in rats.
      )]. The principal utility of animal models is the hypothesis testing of mechanistic processes at the biological level independent of appraisal and cognition. These include examining effects of peripheral or central nervous system lesions on physiology/behavior, or mapping of peripheral/central interactions via stimulation of selective neurons/circuits using optogenetic methods (
      • Williams E.K.
      • Chang R.B.
      • Strochlic D.E.
      • Umans B.D.
      • Lowell B.B.
      • Liberles S.D.
      Sensory neurons that detect stretch and nutrients in the digestive system.
      ,
      • Chang R.B.
      • Strochlic D.E.
      • Williams E.K.
      • Umans B.D.
      • Liberles S.D.
      Vagal sensory neuron subtypes that differentially control breathing.
      ), and targeted gene expression manipulation to test genetic hypotheses (
      • Halim D.
      • Wilson M.P.
      • Oliver D.
      • Brosens E.
      • Verheij J.B.
      • Han Y.
      • et al.
      Loss of LMOD1 impairs smooth muscle cytocontractility and causes megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome in humans and mice.
      ). Animal models are advantageous in that they allow for identification of neural mechanisms that may be distinct from higher cognitive processes (e.g., nonmammalian [reptiles/birds] vs. mammalian [mice/rats/monkeys/apes/chimpanzees], invertebrate [octopus] vs. vertebrate [fish/monkeys]). The study of interoception in nonhuman primates offers intriguing opportunities. Investigations in this area have been centered primarily on neural encoding of baroreceptor afferent stimulation (
      • Oppenheimer S.
      • Cechetto D.
      The insular cortex and the regulation of cardiac function.
      ) and neuroanatomical circuit tracing (
      • Mesulam M.M.
      • Mufson E.J.
      Insula of the old world monkey: I. Architectonics in the insulo-orbito-temporal component of the paralimbic brain.
      ). Fewer studies have examined relationships between mechanistic manipulation of interoceptive experiences and neural representation in these animals [see (
      • Mitz A.R.
      • Chacko R.V.
      • Putnam P.T.
      • Rudebeck P.H.
      • Murray E.A.
      Using pupil size and heart rate to infer affective states during behavioral neurophysiology and neuropsychology experiments.
      ,
      • Rudebeck P.H.
      • Putnam P.T.
      • Daniels T.E.
      • Yang T.
      • Mitz A.R.
      • Rhodes S.E.
      • et al.
      A role for primate subgenual cingulate cortex in sustaining autonomic arousal.
      ) for exceptions].

       Eavesdropping on Brain–Body Communications

      Interoception is manifested by the conversation between the body and brain via multiple afferent and efferent feedback loops (
      • Craig A.D.
      How do you feel? Interoception: The sense of the physiological condition of the body.
      ,
      • Damasio A.R.
      The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness.
      ). Listening in on this process requires different approaches. Peripheral perturbations are often used to stimulate the afferent bottom-up transfer of information, usually of mechanical (
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Rudrauf D.
      • Sandesara C.
      • Olshansky B.
      • Tranel D.
      Bolus isoproterenol infusions provide a reliable method for assessing interoceptive awareness.
      ,
      • von Leupoldt A.
      • Sommer T.
      • Kegat S.
      • Baumann H.J.
      • Klose H.
      • Dahme B.
      • et al.
      Dyspnea and pain share emotion-related brain network.
      ,
      • Aziz Q.
      • Thompson D.G.
      • Ng V.W.
      • Hamdy S.
      • Sarkar S.
      • Brammer M.J.
      • et al.
      Cortical processing of human somatic and visceral sensation.
      ,
      • Wang G.J.
      • Tomasi D.
      • Backus W.
      • Wang R.
      • Telang F.
      • Geliebter A.
      • et al.
      Gastric distention activates satiety circuitry in the human brain.
      ), chemical (
      • Hannestad J.
      • Subramanyam K.
      • Dellagioia N.
      • Planeta-Wilson B.
      • Weinzimmer D.
      • Pittman B.
      • et al.
      Glucose metabolism in the insula and cingulate is affected by systemic inflammation in humans.
      ,
      • Harrison N.A.
      • Brydon L.
      • Walker C.
      • Gray M.A.
      • Steptoe A.
      • Critchley H.D.
      Inflammation causes mood changes through alterations in subgenual cingulate activity and mesolimbic connectivity.
      ,
      • Harrison N.A.
      • Brydon L.
      • Walker C.
      • Gray M.A.
      • Steptoe A.
      • Dolan R.J.
      • et al.
      Neural origins of human sickness in interoceptive responses to inflammation.
      ), or hormonal (
      • Schulz A.
      • Strelzyk F.
      • Ferreira de Sa D.S.
      • Naumann E.
      • Vogele C.
      • Schachinger H.
      Cortisol rapidly affects amplitudes of heartbeat-evoked brain potentials—Implications for the contribution of stress to an altered perception of physical sensations?.
      ) origin (Supplemental Table S1). Central perturbations to probe efferent top-down processes have most typically involved selective regulation of attentional focus (
      • Critchley H.D.
      • Wiens S.
      • Rotshtein P.
      • Ohman A.
      • Dolan R.J.
      Neural systems supporting interoceptive awareness.
      ,
      • Avery J.A.
      • Drevets W.C.
      • Moseman S.E.
      • Bodurka J.
      • Barcalow J.C.
      • Simmons W.K.
      Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormal interoceptive activity and functional connectivity in the insula.
      ) and, less commonly, expectancy manipulations such as placebo/sham delivery (
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Craske M.G.
      • Li W.
      • Vangala S.
      • Strober M.
      • Feusner J.D.
      Altered interoceptive awareness in anorexia nervosa: Effects of meal anticipation, consumption and bodily arousal.
      ). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (
      • Schulz S.M.
      Neural correlates of heart-focused interoception: A functional magnetic resonance imaging meta-analysis.
      ), positron emission tomography (
      • Cameron O.G.
      • Huang G.C.
      • Nichols T.
      • Koeppe R.A.
      • Minoshima S.
      • Rose D.
      • et al.
      Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acidA-benzodiazepine binding sites in insular cortex of individuals with panic disorder.
      ), and electroencephalography (
      • Pollatos O.
      • Schandry R.
      Accuracy of heartbeat perception is reflected in the amplitude of the heartbeat-evoked brain potential.
      ,
      • von Leupoldt A.
      • Keil A.
      • Chan P.Y.
      • Bradley M.M.
      • Lang P.J.
      • Davenport P.W.
      Cortical sources of the respiratory-related evoked potential.
      ) have provided the primary means of assessing neural circuitry. However, a host of novel tools are capable of inhibiting, stimulating, or modulating the activity of interoceptive brain networks. Noninvasive methods include the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (
      • Pollatos O.
      • Herbert B.M.
      • Mai S.
      • Kammer T.
      Changes in interoceptive processes following brain stimulation.
      ), transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation (
      • Fox K.C.
      • Christoff K.
      Transcranial direct current stimulation to lateral prefrontal cortex could increase meta-awareness of mind wandering.
      ), low-intensity focused ultrasound (
      • Monti M.M.
      • Schnakers C.
      • Korb A.S.
      • Bystritsky A.
      • Vespa P.M.
      Non-invasive, ultrasonic thalamic stimulation in disorders of consciousness after severe brain injury: A first-in-man report.
      ), temporally interfering electric fields (
      • Grossman N.
      • Bono D.
      • Dedic N.
      • Kodandaramaiah S.B.
      • Rudenko A.
      • Suk H.J.
      • et al.
      Noninvasive deep brain stimulation via temporally interfering electric fields.
      ), transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (
      • Antonino D.
      • Teixeira A.L.
      • Maia-Lopes P.M.
      • Souza M.C.
      • Sabino-Carvalho J.L.
      • Murray A.R.
      • et al.
      Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation acutely improves spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in healthy young men: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.
      ), presentation of information during different phases of visceral rhythms (e.g., cardiac systole vs. diastole) (
      • Azevedo R.T.
      • Garfinkel S.N.
      • Critchley H.D.
      • Tsakiris M.
      Cardiac afferent activity modulates the expression of racial stereotypes.
      ), and assessment of corticocardiac signaling (
      • Panitz C.
      • Hermann C.
      • Mueller E.M.
      Conditioned and extinguished fear modulate functional corticocardiac coupling in humans.
      ). An important point is that many of the critical brain structures are difficult to modulate noninvasively because they are located deep within the brain or near the midline. Invasive measures do not share this limitation, and while their implementation is driven by clinical concerns, they can provide important insights. These include implanted vagus nerve stimulation (
      • Nemeroff C.B.
      • Mayberg H.S.
      • Krahl S.E.
      • McNamara J.
      • Frazer A.
      • Henry T.R.
      • et al.
      VNS therapy in treatment-resistant depression: Clinical evidence and putative neurobiological mechanisms.
      ), direct brain stimulation (
      • Mazzola L.
      • Mauguiere F.
      • Isnard J.
      Electrical stimulations of the human insula: Their contribution to the ictal semiology of insular seizures.
      ), and intracranial electrode recordings (
      • Kern M.
      • Aertsen A.
      • Schulze-Bonhage A.
      • Ball T.
      Heart cycle-related effects on event-related potentials, spectral power changes, and connectivity patterns in the human ECoG.
      ,
      • Park H.D.
      • Bernasconi F.
      • Salomon R.
      • Tallon-Baudry C.
      • Spinelli L.
      • Seeck M.
      • et al.
      Neural sources and underlying mechanisms of neural responses to heartbeats, and their role in bodily self-consciousness: An intracranial EEG study.
      ). Beyond these perturbation tools, the use of experimental methods to modulate expectancies, such as placebo and sham interventions, is key. These methods will help to determine how sensitive psychiatric and other clinical patients’ afferent/efferent feedback loops are to processes requiring integrations of environmental context with body–brain signals (illustrated in the next section). Finally, neurofeedback (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram) represents an exciting opportunity to participate in the brain–body conversation by simultaneously measuring and modulating brain regions during treatment [for a noninteroceptive example, see (
      • Young K.D.
      • Misaki M.
      • Harmer C.J.
      • Victor T.
      • Zotev V.
      • Phillips R.
      • et al.
      Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging amygdala neurofeedback changes positive information processing in major depressive disorder.
      )]. Equipped with these tools, the future looks promising, but to advance progress they need to be paired with better models of brain function.

       Computational Theories of Interoception

      Identifying the state of the body represents a problem that cannot be solved by pure sensing because afferent signals from body sensors (interosensations) are not only noisy but often ambiguous (
      • Petersen S.
      • Schroijen M.
      • Molders C.
      • Zenker S.
      • Van den Bergh O.
      Categorical interoception: Perceptual organization of sensations from inside.
      ). Recent computational theories suggest that interoception deploys Bayesian inference to address this challenge (
      • Stephan K.E.
      • Manjaly Z.M.
      • Mathys C.D.
      • Weber L.A.
      • Paliwal S.
      • Gard T.
      • et al.
      Allostatic self-efficacy: A metacognitive theory of dyshomeostasis-induced fatigue and depression.
      ,
      • Petzschner F.H.
      • Weber L.A.E.
      • Gard T.
      • Stephan K.E.
      Computational psychosomatics and computational psychiatry: Toward a joint framework for differential diagnosis.
      ,
      • Seth A.K.
      • Suzuki K.
      • Critchley H.D.
      An interoceptive predictive coding model of conscious presence.
      ,
      • Barrett L.F.
      • Simmons W.K.
      Interoceptive predictions in the brain.
      ,
      • Seth A.K.
      • Critchley H.D.
      Extending predictive processing to the body: Emotion as interoceptive inference.
      ,
      • Pezzulo G.
      • Rigoli F.
      • Friston K.
      Active inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.
      ) (Figures 3 and 4). Specifically, the brain is assumed to construct a so-called generative model of interosensations that combines a predictive mapping (from hidden bodily states to interosensations) with prior information (beliefs or expectations about bodily states represented as probability distributions). This view is supported by findings that interoceptive perception is strongly shaped by expectations (
      • Craig A.D.
      How do you feel? Interoception: The sense of the physiological condition of the body.
      ,
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Craske M.G.
      • Li W.
      • Vangala S.
      • Strober M.
      • Feusner J.D.
      Altered interoceptive awareness in anorexia nervosa: Effects of meal anticipation, consumption and bodily arousal.
      ,
      • Buchel C.
      • Geuter S.
      • Sprenger C.
      • Eippert F.
      Placebo analgesia: A predictive coding perspective.
      ,
      • Seth A.K.
      Interoceptive inference, emotion, and the embodied self.
      ) and by theoretical arguments that suggest Bayesian inference as a unifying principle for interoception and exteroception (
      • Petzschner F.H.
      • Weber L.A.E.
      • Gard T.
      • Stephan K.E.
      Computational psychosomatics and computational psychiatry: Toward a joint framework for differential diagnosis.
      ,
      • Pezzulo G.
      • Rigoli F.
      • Friston K.
      Active inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.
      ).
      Figure thumbnail gr3
      Figure 3(A) Example of one possible form of a general inference–control loop illustrated within a hierarchical Bayesian model. (B) Highly schematic example of illustrating that both interoceptive information and exteroceptive information are concurrently integrated to inform perceptual representations and action selection with respect to internally directed (e.g., visceromotor, autonomic) and externally directed (e.g., skeletomotor) actions. (C) General nodes that comprise a peripheral and central neural circuit for hierarchically integrating afferent interoceptive information into homeostatic reflexes, sensory and metacognitive representations, and allostatic regulators (predictions). ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; AIC, anterior insular cortex; MC, metacognitive layer; MIC, midinsular cortex; OFC, orbitofrontal cortex; PE, prediction error; PIC, posterior insular cortex; SGC, subgenual cortex.
      [Panels (A) and (B) reproduced, with permission, from Petzschner et al. (
      • Petzschner F.H.
      • Weber L.A.E.
      • Gard T.
      • Stephan K.E.
      Computational psychosomatics and computational psychiatry: Toward a joint framework for differential diagnosis.
      ). Panel (C) adapted, with permission, from Stephan et al. (
      • Stephan K.E.
      • Manjaly Z.M.
      • Mathys C.D.
      • Weber L.A.
      • Paliwal S.
      • Gard T.
      • et al.
      Allostatic self-efficacy: A metacognitive theory of dyshomeostasis-induced fatigue and depression.
      ).]
      Figure thumbnail gr4
      Figure 4(A) Active inference implementation according to the Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding model. Agranular visceromotor cortices, including the cingulate cortex, posterior ventral medial prefrontal cortex, posterior orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral anterior insula, estimate the balance among autonomic, metabolic, and immunological resources available to the body and its predicted requirements. These agranular visceromotor cortices issue allostatic predictions to hypothalamus, brainstem, and spinal cord nuclei to maintain a homeostatic internal milieu and simultaneously to the primary interoceptive sensory cortex in the mid and posterior insula. The interoceptive sensory cortex in the granular mid and posterior insula sends reciprocal prediction error signals back to the agranular visceromotor regions to modify the predictions. Under usual circumstances, these agranular regions are relatively insensitive to such feedback, which explains why interoceptive predictions are fairly stable in the face of body fluctuations. One hypothesis of the role of interoception in mental illness is that interoceptive input (i.e., posteriors) becomes increasingly decoupled from interoceptive predictions issued by the agranular visceromotor cortex (priors), leading to increased interoceptive prediction error signals. This decoupling may present in the brain as “noisy afferent interoceptive inputs”
      (
      • Paulus M.P.
      • Stein M.B.
      Interoception in anxiety and depression.
      )
      . (B) Proposed intracortical architecture and intercortical connectivity for interoceptive predictive coding. The granular cortex contains six cell layers including granule cells, which are excitatory neurons that amplify and distribute thalamocortical inputs throughout the column. The granular cortex is structurally similar to the neocortex and therefore more recently evolved than the agranular and dysgranular cortices. Within the insula, the granular cortex is present in the mid and posterior sectors. AC, anterior cingulate; PL, prelimbic cortex.
      [Figures reproduced, with permission, from Barrett and Simmons (
      • Barrett L.F.
      • Simmons W.K.
      Interoceptive predictions in the brain.
      ).]
      Another argument supporting a Bayesian view on interoception is its relation to what constitutes arguably the brain’s most fundamental task: the regulation (or control) of bodily states. Put simply, if the brain were unable to resolve the ambiguity of interosensations, it would face difficulties in choosing appropriate actions to protect homeostasis. In information-theoretic terms, the challenge of keeping bodily states within narrow homeostatic ranges corresponds to choosing actions that minimize the long-term average Shannon surprise (entropy) of interosensations (
      • Stephan K.E.
      • Manjaly Z.M.
      • Mathys C.D.
      • Weber L.A.
      • Paliwal S.
      • Gard T.
      • et al.
      Allostatic self-efficacy: A metacognitive theory of dyshomeostasis-induced fatigue and depression.
      ,
      • Pezzulo G.
      • Rigoli F.
      • Friston K.
      Active inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.
      ). Solving this control problem requires knowledge or estimations of current and/or future bodily states and hence inference and predictions/forecasts—two natural domains of generative models.
      Eliciting surprise-minimizing (homeostasis-restoring) actions changes the bodily state and thus interosensations. This means that inference and control of bodily states form a closed loop. Inference–control loops that minimize interoceptive surprise can be cast as hierarchical Bayesian models (HBMs). Anatomically, HBMs are plausible candidates given that interoceptive circuitry is structured hierarchically (
      • Barrett L.F.
      • Simmons W.K.
      Interoceptive predictions in the brain.
      ,
      • Smith R.
      • Thayer J.F.
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Lane R.D.
      The hierarchical basis of neurovisceral integration.
      ). Under general assumptions, HBMs employ a small set of computational quantities—predictions, prediction errors, and precisions (
      • Petzschner F.H.
      • Weber L.A.E.
      • Gard T.
      • Stephan K.E.
      Computational psychosomatics and computational psychiatry: Toward a joint framework for differential diagnosis.
      ,
      • Friston K.
      Hierarchical models in the brain.
      ). These quantities can support surprise minimization in two ways: by adjusting beliefs (probability distributions) throughout the hierarchy [predictive coding (
      • Friston K.
      Hierarchical models in the brain.
      )] or engaging actions that fulfill beliefs about bodily states [active inference (
      • Friston K.
      The free-energy principle: A unified brain theory?.
      )].
      HBMs support both homeostatic (reactive) and allostatic (prospective) control. Reconsidering classical homeostatic set points as beliefs (i.e., probabilistic representations of expected/desired bodily states) enables reactive regulation at the bottom of the hierarchy (
      • Stephan K.E.
      • Manjaly Z.M.
      • Mathys C.D.
      • Weber L.A.
      • Paliwal S.
      • Gard T.
      • et al.
      Allostatic self-efficacy: A metacognitive theory of dyshomeostasis-induced fatigue and depression.
      ,
      • Pezzulo G.
      • Rigoli F.
      • Friston K.
      Active inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.
      ); here, prediction errors elicit reflex-like actions that minimize momentary interoceptive surprise. Allostatic regulation at longer time scales is achieved through modulation of homeostatic beliefs by inferred or forecast states signaled from higher hierarchical levels (
      • Stephan K.E.
      • Manjaly Z.M.
      • Mathys C.D.
      • Weber L.A.
      • Paliwal S.
      • Gard T.
      • et al.
      Allostatic self-efficacy: A metacognitive theory of dyshomeostasis-induced fatigue and depression.
      ). Importantly, belief precision determines the force/pace of corrective actions—that is, the tighter the expected range of bodily state, the more vigorous the elicited regulatory action. This offers a novel explanation for psychosomatic phenomena and placebo effects (
      • Petzschner F.H.
      • Weber L.A.E.
      • Gard T.
      • Stephan K.E.
      Computational psychosomatics and computational psychiatry: Toward a joint framework for differential diagnosis.
      ).
      In summary, a hierarchical Bayesian perspective unifies interoception and homeostatic/allostatic control under the same computational principles. This provides a conceptual foundation for computational psychosomatics and supports a taxonomy of disease processes (
      • Petzschner F.H.
      • Weber L.A.E.
      • Gard T.
      • Stephan K.E.
      Computational psychosomatics and computational psychiatry: Toward a joint framework for differential diagnosis.
      ). One caveat is that the empirical evidence for hierarchical Bayesian principles of interoception and homeostatic/allostatic control is indirect so far. Studies designed to probe hierarchical Bayesian processes under experimentally controlled homeostatic perturbations will be crucial for finessing (or refuting) current computational concepts of interoception.

      Psychopathology

       Interoceptive Psychopathology

      Several conceptual and heuristic models have linked dysfunctions of interoception to mental health conditions. Specifically, mood and anxiety disorders have been linked to failures to appropriately anticipate changes in interoceptive states (
      • Paulus M.P.
      • Stein M.B.
      Interoception in anxiety and depression.
      ). Eating disorders show behavioral and neural abnormalities in interoceptive processing, particularly in the context of caloric anticipation (
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Craske M.G.
      • Li W.
      • Vangala S.
      • Strober M.
      • Feusner J.D.
      Altered interoceptive awareness in anorexia nervosa: Effects of meal anticipation, consumption and bodily arousal.
      ,
      • Berner L.A.
      • Simmons A.N.
      • Wierenga C.E.
      • Bischoff-Grethe A.
      • Paulus M.P.
      • Bailer U.F.
      • et al.
      Altered interoceptive activation before, during, and after aversive breathing load in women remitted from anorexia nervosa.
      ,
      • Kerr K.L.
      • Moseman S.E.
      • Avery J.A.
      • Bodurka J.
      • Zucker N.L.
      • Simmons W.K.
      Altered insula activity during visceral interoception in weight-restored patients with anorexia nervosa.
      ,
      • Frank G.K.
      Advances from neuroimaging studies in eating disorders.
      ), although it remains unclear whether this is due to altered afferent signaling, altered central sensory processing, abnormal temperament, and/or metacognition. Drug addiction, another condition marked by interoceptive disturbances, has an overlapping neural circuitry and abnormal responses to interoceptive cues (
      • Goldstein R.Z.
      • Craig A.D.
      • Bechara A.
      • Garavan H.
      • Childress A.R.
      • Paulus M.P.
      • et al.
      The neurocircuitry of impaired insight in drug addiction.
      ,
      • Naqvi N.H.
      • Bechara A.
      The hidden island of addiction: The insula.
      ,
      • Paulus M.P.
      • Stewart J.L.
      • Haase L.
      Treatment approaches for interoceptive dysfunctions in drug addiction.
      ,
      • Avery J.A.
      • Burrows K.
      • Kerr K.L.
      • Bodurka J.
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Paulus M.P.
      • et al.
      How the brain wants what the body needs: The neural basis of positive alliesthesia.
      ). Interoceptive dysfunction also likely plays a role in conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder and somatic symptom disorders (
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Lapidus R.C.
      Can interoception improve the pragmatic search for biomarkers in psychiatry?.
      ). Other disorders also have interoceptive symptom overlap; however, the specific feature involved may differ according to the disorder or affected individual [e.g., chronic pain (
      • Hechler T.
      • Endres D.
      • Thorwart A.
      Why harmless sensations might hurt in individuals with chronic pain: About heightened prediction and perception of pain in the mind.
      ,
      • Di Lernia D.
      • Serino S.
      • Riva G.
      Pain in the body: Altered interoception in chronic pain conditions: A systematic review.
      ), Tourette’s syndrome and other tic disorders, borderline personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism spectrum disorder (
      • Garfinkel S.N.
      • Tiley C.
      • O’Keeffe S.
      • Harrison N.A.
      • Seth A.K.
      • Critchley H.D.
      Discrepancies between dimensions of interoception in autism: Implications for emotion and anxiety.
      ), functional developmental disorders (
      • Flack F.
      • Pane-Farre C.A.
      • Zernikow B.
      • Schaan L.
      • Hechler T.
      Do interoceptive sensations provoke fearful responses in adolescents with chronic headache or chronic abdominal pain? A preliminary experimental study.
      )]. Table 3 lists diagnostic symptoms and clinical signs indicative of interoceptive dysfunction in several psychiatric disorders. Conditions that have a psychiatric component include fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional disorders within medicine (e.g., noncardiac chest pain, functional dysphagia) as well as certain medical disorders (e.g., gastroesophageal reflux, asthma).
      Alternatively, one can use a dimensional psychopathology approach to link processes underlying interoceptive dysfunction to psychiatric disorders. Transdiagnostic perspectives such as those provided by the Research Domain Criteria (
      • Insel T.
      • Cuthbert B.
      • Garvey M.
      • Heinssen R.
      • Pine D.S.
      • Quinn K.
      • et al.
      Research domain criteria (RDoC): Toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders.
      ) may be particularly helpful in identifying the potential role played by various interoceptive processes because several of these might not be readily identified at the symptom report level relied on by clinicians and, accordingly, might not have entered into the diagnostic specifications for DSM. This would allow for identification of mechanistic dysfunctions across units of analyses and might bridge the biological gap in current diagnostic classification frameworks by directly probing the links between physiological and psychological dysfunctions. Interoceptive investigations in mental health populations might reveal evidence of 1) attentional bias (e.g., hypervigilance), 2) distorted physiological sensitivity (e.g., blunted or heightened magnitude estimation in response to a perturbation), 3) cognitive bias (e.g., catastrophizing in response to an anticipated stimulus), 4) abnormal sensibility (e.g., tendency to label one’s experiences in a particular way), and 5) impaired insight (e.g., poor confidence–accuracy correspondence on a task).
      Determining whether interoceptive processes are a cause or consequence of developmental psychopathology, and which factors might affect this development (such as early life stress or pain), will be an important area for future research. Such studies may benefit from the examination of younger (
      • Koch A.
      • Pollatos O.
      Cardiac sensitivity in children: Sex differences and its relationship to parameters of emotional processing.
      ,
      • Maister L.
      • Tang T.
      • Tsakiris M.
      Neurobehavioral evidence of interoceptive sensitivity in early infancy.
      ) or older (
      • Murphy J.
      • Brewer R.
      • Catmur C.
      • Bird G.
      Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective.
      ,
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Rudrauf D.
      • Tranel D.
      Interoceptive awareness declines with age.
      ) samples and premorbid identification and longitudinal tracking of individuals (
      • von Leupoldt A.
      • Mangelschots E.
      • Niederstrasser N.G.
      • Braeken M.
      • Billiet T.
      • Van den Bergh B.R.H.
      Prenatal stress exposure is associated with increased dyspnoea perception in adulthood.
      ). Investigating the role of social cognition/theory of mind in clinically relevant interoceptive inference generation represents another ripe opportunity (
      • Ondobaka S.
      • Kilner J.
      • Friston K.
      The role of interoceptive inference in theory of mind.
      ).

       Interoceptive Tests and/or Biomarkers

      Because interoception is fundamentally a process linking body and brain, it is conceivable that objective measures of this process could serve as biological indicators of disease states. However, there is currently limited evidence for interoceptive predictors of diagnostic, prognostic, or treatment status (
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Lapidus R.C.
      Can interoception improve the pragmatic search for biomarkers in psychiatry?.
      ,
      • Ehlers A.
      A 1-year prospective study of panic attacks: Clinical course and factors associated with maintenance.
      ,
      • Sundermann B.
      • Bode J.
      • Lueken U.
      • Westphal D.
      • Gerlach A.L.
      • Straube B.
      • et al.
      Support vector machine analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging of interoception does not reliably predict individual outcomes of cognitive behavioral therapy in panic disorder with agoraphobia.
      ). Biomarkers, such as those derived from neuroimaging or blood measurements, should be sensitive, specific, and unaffected by cognitive and emotional influences. However, it seems conceivable that the most clinically sensitive interoceptive measures might derive from probes that perturb physiological functions to engage specific metacognitive beliefs and/or expectations about bodily states. Such measures could facilitate differential diagnosis testing by revealing the presence of interoceptive dysfunction of biological (within a physiological system or systems), psychological (e.g., overly precise expectations about bodily states), or metacognitive (e.g., discrepant self-efficacy beliefs with regard to homeostatic/allostatic regulation) origin (
      • Petzschner F.H.
      • Weber L.A.E.
      • Gard T.
      • Stephan K.E.
      Computational psychosomatics and computational psychiatry: Toward a joint framework for differential diagnosis.
      ). This approach could be seen as analogous to a cardiac stress test, such that adequate engagement of the system under ecologically valid conditions is required in order to measure its dysfunction.
      The most common application of interoceptive evaluation in current clinical practice occurs during interoceptive exposure psychotherapy for panic disorder (
      • Craske M.G.
      • Barlow D.H.
      Mastery of Your Anxiety and Panic: Therapist Guide, 4th ed.
      ). During this procedure, patients self-induce varieties of interoceptive symptoms via low-arousal manipulations (e.g., hyperventilation, performing jumping jacks, spinning in a chair, breathing through a straw) while the clinician monitors their subjective distress level. Unfortunately these manipulations often fail to adequately reproduce the fear response, possibly because the patient retains full control over the stimulation (the patient can quit at any time) and the perturbation remains predictable with minimal uncertainty, raising the question of whether modulating both physiological homeostasis and the perception of controllability might further improve the ecological validity and efficacy of interoceptive exposures (
      • Abelson J.L.
      • Khan S.
      • Liberzon I.
      • Erickson T.M.
      • Young E.A.
      Effects of perceived control and cognitive coping on endocrine stress responses to pharmacological activation.
      ). A test to verify successful interoceptive exposure therapy for panic disorder involves completion of a standardized behavioral avoidance paradigm (
      • Richter J.
      • Hamm A.O.
      • Pane-Farre C.A.
      • Gerlach A.L.
      • Gloster A.T.
      • Wittchen H.U.
      • et al.
      Dynamics of defensive reactivity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia: Implications for the etiology of panic disorder.
      ). In this setting, the degree of tolerance to being enclosed in a small dark chamber for 10 minutes might provide behavioral evidence verifying tolerance to triggers of interoceptive dysregulation. There is also experimental evidence that pharmacological interoceptive exposure therapy can reduce anxiety disorder symptom severity either as monotherapy (
      • van den Hout M.A.
      • van der Molen G.M.
      • Griez E.
      • Lousberg H.
      • Nansen A.
      Reduction of CO2-induced anxiety in patients with panic attacks after repeated CO2 exposure.
      ,
      • Beck J.G.
      • Shipherd J.C.
      • Zebb B.J.
      How does interoceptive exposure for panic disorder work? An uncontrolled case study.
      ,
      • Forsyth J.P.
      • Lejuez C.W.
      • Finlay C.
      Anxiogenic effects of repeated administrations of 20% CO2-enriched air: Stability within sessions and habituation across time.
      ,
      • Deacon B.
      • Kemp J.J.
      • Dixon L.J.
      • Sy J.T.
      • Farrell N.R.
      • Zhang A.R.
      Maximizing the efficacy of interoceptive exposure by optimizing inhibitory learning: A randomized controlled trial.
      ) or as an augmentative approach (
      • Smits J.A.
      • Rosenfield D.
      • Davis M.L.
      • Julian K.
      • Handelsman P.R.
      • Otto M.W.
      • et al.
      Yohimbine enhancement of exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.
      ). However, there are few studies of these procedures to date, the impact of such interventions on longer term outcomes (e.g., 6 months or beyond) are unknown, and none of these approaches has translated into clinical practice.

       Current Treatments Relevant to Interoception

      Among the currently available therapies with an interoceptive basis are pharmacotherapies directly modulating interoceptive physiology. Examples include adrenergic blockade (e.g., propranolol) or agonism (e.g., yohimbine), stimulants (e.g., methylphenidate), benzodiazepines, muscle relaxants, and opioids. A second example is cognitive behavioral therapy with exposure and response prevention to reverse or attenuate conditioned fears or form new learned associations. It is helpful in ameliorating cognitive biases in numerous disorders, including depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (specifically prolonged exposure therapy), irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic pain. Interoceptive exposure is a special example demonstrated to be effective in specific disorders (especially panic disorder). Behavioral activation therapy for depression sometimes includes exposure to experiences with positive interoceptive value. A third example is capnometry-assisted respiratory training. Based on the assumption that sustained hypocapnia resulting from hyperventilation is a key mechanism in the production and maintenance of panic, carbon dioxide capnography-assisted therapy aims to help patients voluntarily increase end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide and tolerate physiological variability associated with panic attacks (
      • Meuret A.E.
      • Wilhelm F.H.
      • Ritz T.
      • Roth W.T.
      Feedback of end-tidal pCO2 as a therapeutic approach for panic disorder.
      ,
      • Meuret A.E.
      • Ritz T.
      • Wilhelm F.H.
      • Roth W.T.
      • Rosenfield D.
      Hypoventilation therapy alleviates panic by repeated induction of dyspnea.
      ). As a fourth example, mindfulness-based stress reduction, yoga, and other meditation/movement-based treatments may be aimed at improving metacognitive awareness of mind–body connections by systematically attending to sensations of breathing, cognitions, and/or other modulated body states (e.g., muscle stretching) (
      • Farb N.
      • Daubenmier J.
      • Price C.J.
      • Gard T.
      • Kerr C.
      • Dunn B.D.
      • et al.
      Interoception, contemplative practice, and health.
      ).

       Interoceptive Treatments on the Horizon

      Several emerging technologies may have relevance for interoception and mental health, including Floatation-REST (reduced environmental stimulation therapy) and perturbation approaches.

       Floatation-REST

      This intervention, which systematically attenuates exteroceptive sensory input to the nervous system, also appears to noninvasively enhance exposure to interoceptive sensations such as the breath and heartbeat (
      • Feinstein J.S.
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Yeh H.
      • Al Zoubi O.
      • Arevian A.C.
      • Wohlrab C.
      • et al.
      The elicitation of relaxation and interoceptive awareness using Floatation therapy in individuals with high anxiety sensitivity.
      ). Preliminary data suggest that a single 1-hour session has a short-term anxiolytic and antidepressant effect in patients with comorbid anxiety and depression (
      • Feinstein J.S.
      • Khalsa S.S.
      • Yeh H.W.
      • Wohlrab C.
      • Simmons W.K.
      • Stein M.B.
      • Paulus M.P.
      Examining the short-term anxiolytic and antidepressant effect of Floatation-REST.
      ), but further research is needed to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and potential for long-term efficacy in psychiatric populations.

       Perturbation Approaches

      Minimally invasive tools capable of systematically modulating interoceptive processing, such as inspiratory breathing loads (
      • Van Diest I.
      • Davenport P.
      • Van den Bergh O.
      • Miller S.
      • Robertson E.
      Interoceptive fear conditioning to an inspiratory load using 20% CO2 inhalation as an unconditioned stimulus.
      ), core body thermomodulation (
      • Janssen C.W.
      • Lowry C.A.
      • Mehl M.R.
      • Allen J.J.
      • Kelly K.L.
      • Gartner D.E.
      • et al.
      Whole-body hyperthermia for the treatment of major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial.
      ,
      • Kox M.
      • van Eijk L.T.
      • Zwaag J.
      • van den Wildenberg J.
      • Sweep F.C.
      • van der Hoeven J.G.
      • et al.
      Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans.
      ), and transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (
      • De Couck M.
      • Cserjesi R.
      • Caers R.
      • Zijlstra W.P.
      • Widjaja D.
      • Wolf N.
      • et al.
      Effects of short and prolonged transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate variability in healthy subjects.
      ), are several approaches awaiting further investigation. Given the hypothesis of noisy baseline afferent signaling, these approaches may systematically enhance the signal-to-noise ratio and facilitate interoceptive learning. A key aspect in discerning clinical efficacy of any perturbation may be the extent to which the patient perceives controllability over the intervention and is willing/able to surrender this parameter in treatment. Interventions in which escape or active avoidance behaviors are directly measurable may provide especially meaningful information (
      • Krause E.
      • Benke C.
      • Koenig J.
      • Thayer J.F.
      • Hamm A.O.
      • Pané-Farré C.A.
      Dynamics of defensive response mobilization to approaching external versus interoceptive threat.
      ).

      Roadmap

       The Road Ahead

      Beyond the issues outlined previously, progress in determining the relevance of interoception for mental health relies on emphasizing the features that distinguish it from other sensory modalities. Interoception seemingly involves a high degree of connectivity within the brain (
      • Kleckner I.R.
      • Zhang J.
      • Touroutoglou A.
      • Chanes L.
      • Xia C.
      • Simmons W.K.
      • et al.
      Evidence for a large-scale brain system supporting allostasis and interoception in humans.
      ). It appears to be tightly linked to the self and survival through homeostatic maintenance of the body, and by helping us to represent how things are going in the present with respect to the experienced past and the anticipated future. These computations may depend on what has occurred to shape the body’s internal landscape, and it is in this regard that learning, and malleability of representations over time, could play important roles.
      The conceptual framework for investigating interoception may overlap with other processes, including emotion (
      • Anderson D.J.
      • Adolphs R.
      A framework for studying emotions across species.
      ) and pain (
      • Kent M.L.
      • Tighe P.J.
      • Belfer I.
      • Brennan T.J.
      • Bruehl S.
      • Brummett C.M.
      • et al.
      The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) multidimensional approach to classifying acute pain conditions.
      ), because each is integral for maintaining bodily homeostasis. An important endeavor may involve the identification of which neural systems for interoception, emotion, cognition, and pain are overlapping, interdigitating, or even possibly identical. Additional effort is needed to define the neurophysiological nomenclature, core criteria, common features, developmental aspects, modulating factors, functional consequences, and putative pathophysiologic mechanisms of interoception in mental health disorders.
      The current work offers some conceptual distinctions and some mutually agreed-on terminology, with many others still needed. Several low-hanging fruits, as well as promising emerging technologies and tools, have been mentioned. Further empirical work will be critical to delineate how interoception can be mapped to mental health measures, models, and approaches, and benchmarks for success/failure need to be established. Models of interoceptive processing that improve on the traditional stimulus, sensorimotor processing, and response function concepts have been described, but these models remain theoretical and await further testing. Therefore, the current document is best viewed as a work in progress.

      Acknowledgments and Disclosures

      We express our sincere appreciation to the William K. Warren Foundation for supporting the Interoception Summit 2016 and to all of the Laureate Institute for Brain Research staff members for their assistance with facilitating the meeting.
      AEM reports the following disclosures: research/grant: National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant No. 1U01EB021952-01 ; scientific advisory board: Anxiety and Depression Association of America. AvL reports the following disclosures: research/grants: Research Fund KU Leuven, Belgium (Grant Nos. STRT/13/002 and DBOF/14/021 ), an infrastructure grant from the Herculesstichting, Belgium (Grant No. AKUL/13/07 ), “Asthenes” long-term structural funding Methusalem grant (Grant No. METH/15/011) by the Flemish Government, Belgium. CBN reports the following disclosures: research/grant: NIH, Stanley Medical Research Institute; consulting (last 3 years): Xhale, Takeda, Taisho Pharmaceutical, Inc., Prismic Pharmaceuticals, Bracket (Clintara), Total Pain Solutions, Gerson Lehrman Group Healthcare & Biomedical Council, Fortress Biotech, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Magstim, Inc., Navitor Pharmaceuticals, Inc., TC MSO, Inc.; stockholder: Xhale, Celgene, Seattle Genetics, Abbvie, OPKO Health, Inc., Bracket Intermediate Holding Corporation, Network Life Sciences, Inc., Antares; scientific advisory boards: American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP), Brain and Behavior Research Foundation (formerly National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression [NARSAD]), Xhale, Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA), Skyland Trail, Bracket (Clintara), RiverMend Health, LLC, Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Inc.; board of directors: AFSP, Gratitude America, ADAA; income sources or equity of $10,000 or more: American Psychiatric Publishing, Xhale, Bracket (Clintara), CME Outfitters, Takeda; patents: method and devices for transdermal delivery of lithium (Patent No. US 6,375,990B1), method of assessing antidepressant drug therapy via transport inhibition of monoamine neurotransmitters by ex vivo assay (Patent No. US 7,148,027B2). HDC reports the following disclosures: research/grants: European Research Council Horizon 2020 Proof of Concept Grant “HeartRater: Tools for the systematic evaluation of interoceptive ability,” Medical Research Council (UK) MRC Confidence in Concept Grant “Identifying neural, cognitive, and phenomenological markers of auditory verbal hallucinations in borderline personality,” MQ (Mental Health) PsyImpact “Aligning Dimensions of Interoceptive Experience (ADIE) to prevent development of anxiety disorders in autism,” Dr. Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex, BIAL Foundation Bursary “Microneurography as a tool for consciousness science”; scientific advisory boards: Emteq, Ltd., unpaid governor on board of charity “Reflecting nature in art & science”; board of directors: Codirector of Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex. KES reports the following disclosures: research/grants: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Transregional Collaborative Research Centre, “Ingestive Behaviour: Homeostasis and Reward,” René and Susanne Braginsky Foundation. LPS reports the following disclosures: scientific advisory board: Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Inc. JDF reports the following disclosures: research/grants: NIH Grant Nos. R01MH105662, R21MH110865, and R01HD087712; scientific advisory boards: International Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Foundation Clinical and Scientific Advisory Board. JLR reports the following disclosures: research/grants: NIH Grant No. R01MD007807 and Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology Grant No. HR15-079. JSF reports the following disclosures: research/grants: NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) Grant No. P20GM121312, Brain and Behavior Research Foundation (formerly NARSAD) Young Investigator Award. MBS reports the following disclosures: scientific advisory board: Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Inc.; editorial board: Depression and Anxiety, Biological Psychiatry. MPP reports the following disclosures: research/grants: the William K. Warren Foundation and NIH Grant No. R01DA016663, NIH/NIGMS Grant No. P20DA027834, and NIH Grant Nos. R01DA027797, R01DA018307, U01DA041089, and 1R01MH101453; consulting (last 3 years): has received royalties for an article about methamphetamine use disorder from UpToDate. OVdB reports the following disclosures: scientific advisory boards: Research Training Group 2271 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft on “Expectation maintenance vs. change in the context of expectation violations: Connecting different approaches,” University of Marburg. RDL reports the following disclosures: research/grant: NIH. SSK reports the following disclosures: research/grants: NIH/National Institute of Mental Health Grant No. K23MH112949, NIH/NIGMS Grant No. P20GM121312, William K. Warren Foundation, Brain and Behavior Foundation (formerly NARSAD) Young Investigator Award. WEM reports the following disclosures: research/grants: NCIRE (Veterans Health Research Institute, San Francisco, California), Alzheimer’s Association, Mental Insight Foundation, the Pepper Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, Resource Allocation Program. WKS reports the following disclosures: research/grants: NIH Grant No. P20GM121312, Brain and Behavior Foundation (formerly NARSAD) Young Investigator Award. The remaining authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest.

      Supplementary Material

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