The Modulation of Neural Noise Underlies the Effectiveness of Methylphenidate Treatment in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

  • Author Footnotes
    1 MP and AB contributed equally to this work.
    Maik Pertermann
    Footnotes
    1 MP and AB contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 MP and AB contributed equally to this work.
    Annet Bluschke
    Footnotes
    1 MP and AB contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany
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  • Veit Roessner
    Affiliations
    Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany
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  • Christian Beste
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Christian Beste, Ph.D., Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, TU Dresden, Schubertstrasse 42, D-01309 Dresden, Germany.
    Affiliations
    Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 MP and AB contributed equally to this work.
Published:April 03, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.03.011

      Abstract

      Background

      Various lines of research suggest that the stability of neural processes is low in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Considering overarching neural principles, this lack of stability relates to increased levels of neural noise. However, no study has directly examined neural noise in ADHD. Likewise, it is unknown whether the modulation of neural noise reflects a mechanistic link as to why methylphenidate (MPH) is effective in treating impulsivity in ADHD.

      Methods

      We compared neural noise between 29 juvenile patients with ADHD and 32 healthy control subjects and examined the effects of MPH. We examined 1/f neural noise of electroencephalogram data collected while participants performed a response inhibition (Go/NoGo) task.

      Results

      Specific during NoGo trials, children with ADHD showed more neural noise than healthy control subjects. This was especially the case with regard to the theta frequency band, which is very closely related to cognitive control. MPH treatment reduced neural noise in ADHD to the level of healthy control subjects. Correlational analyses showed a direct relationship between decreases in neural noise and increases in behavioral performance. Mechanistically, this can be explained by the MPH-induced increase in dopaminergic neurotransmission that enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in neural networks and thus reduces neural noise.

      Conclusions

      This study is the first to demonstrate increased (pink) neural noise in patients with ADHD and its reduction through MPH treatment. The study reveals an important mechanistic link as to why MPH is effective in treating impulsivity in ADHD.

      Keywords

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