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Effects of Smoking Status and State on Intrinsic Connectivity

  • Sarah W. Yip
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Sarah W. Yip, Ph.D.
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
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  • Sarah D. Lichenstein
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
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  • Kathleen Garrison
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
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  • Christopher L. Averill
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

    Clinical Neurosciences Division, Veterans Administration National Center for PTSD, West Haven, Connecticut

    Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

    Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas
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  • Humsini Viswanath
    Affiliations
    Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas
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  • Ramiro Salas
    Affiliations
    Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

    Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas
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  • Chadi G. Abdallah
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

    Clinical Neurosciences Division, Veterans Administration National Center for PTSD, West Haven, Connecticut

    Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

    Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas
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Published:February 18, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.02.004

      Abstract

      Background

      Smoking behavior during the first 24 hours of a quit attempt is a significant predictor of longer-term abstinence, yet little is known about the neurobiology of early tobacco abstinence. Specifically, the effects of acute tobacco deprivation and reinstatement on brain function—particularly at the level of large-scale network dynamics and assessed across the entire brain—remain incompletely understood. To address this gap, this study used a mixed within- and between-subjects design to assess the effects of smoking status (yes/no smoker) and state (deprived vs. satiated) on whole-brain patterns of intrinsic connectivity.

      Methods

      Participants included 42 tobacco smokers who underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging following overnight abstinence (deprived state) and following smoking reinstatement (satiated state, randomized order across participants). Sixty healthy control nonsmokers underwent a single resting-state scan using the same acquisition parameters. Functional connectivity data were analyzed using both a canonical network-of-interest approach and a whole-brain, data-driven approach, i.e., intrinsic connectivity distribution.

      Results

      Network-of-interest–based analyses indicated decreased functional connectivity within frontoparietal and salience networks among smokers relative to nonsmokers as well as effects of smoking state on default mode connectivity. In addition, intrinsic connectivity distribution analyses identified novel between-group differences in subcortical-cerebellar and corticocerebellar networks that were largely smoking state dependent.

      Conclusions

      These data demonstrate the importance of considering smoking state and the utility of using both theory- and data-driven analysis approaches. These data provide much-needed insight into the functional neurobiology of early abstinence, which may be used in the development of novel treatments.

      Keywords

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