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Altered Gray Matter Cortical and Subcortical T1-Weighted/T2-Weighted Ratio in Premature-Born Adults

  • Author Footnotes
    1 BS-K and AM contributed equally to this work as joint first authors.
    Benita Schmitz-Koep
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Benita Schmitz-Koep, M.D.
    Footnotes
    1 BS-K and AM contributed equally to this work as joint first authors.
    Affiliations
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

    Neuroimaging Center, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 BS-K and AM contributed equally to this work as joint first authors.
    Aurore Menegaux
    Footnotes
    1 BS-K and AM contributed equally to this work as joint first authors.
    Affiliations
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

    Neuroimaging Center, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Christian Gaser
    Affiliations
    Departments of Psychiatry, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany

    Departments of Neurology, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany
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  • Elin Brandes
    Affiliations
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

    Neuroimaging Center, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • David Schinz
    Affiliations
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

    Neuroimaging Center, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Melissa Thalhammer
    Affiliations
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

    Neuroimaging Center, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Marcel Daamen
    Affiliations
    Functional Neuroimaging Group, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany

    Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany
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  • Henning Boecker
    Affiliations
    Functional Neuroimaging Group, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany
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  • Claus Zimmer
    Affiliations
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

    Neuroimaging Center, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Josef Priller
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen e.V., Berlin, Germany

    UK Dementia Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
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  • Dieter Wolke
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

    Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom
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  • Peter Bartmann
    Affiliations
    Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 CS and DMH contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
    Christian Sorg
    Footnotes
    2 CS and DMH contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
    Affiliations
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

    Neuroimaging Center, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    2 CS and DMH contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
    Dennis M. Hedderich
    Footnotes
    2 CS and DMH contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
    Affiliations
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

    Neuroimaging Center, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 BS-K and AM contributed equally to this work as joint first authors.
    2 CS and DMH contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
Published:March 08, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.02.013

      Abstract

      Background

      Microscopic studies in newborns and animal models indicate impaired myelination after premature birth, particularly for cortical myelination; however, it remains unclear whether such myelination impairments last into adulthood and, if so, are relevant for impaired cognitive performance. It has been suggested that the ratio of T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity (T1w/T2w ratio) is a proxy for myelin content. We hypothesized altered gray matter (GM) T1w/T2w ratio in premature-born adults, which is associated with lower cognitive performance after premature birth.

      Methods

      We analyzed GM T1w/T2w ratio in 101 adults born very premature (VP) and/or at very low birth weight (VLBW) (<32 weeks of gestation and/or birth weight <1500 g) and 109 full-term control subjects at 26 years of age, controlled for voxelwise volume alterations. Cognitive performance was assessed by verbal, performance, and full scale IQ using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.

      Results

      Significantly higher T1w/T2w ratio in VP/VLBW subjects was found bilaterally in widespread cortical areas, particularly in frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices, and in putamen and pallidum. In these areas, T1w/T2w ratio was not related to birth variables, such as gestational age, or IQ scores. In contrast, significantly lower T1w/T2w ratio in VP/VLBW subjects was found in bilateral clusters in superior temporal gyrus, which was associated with birth weight in the VP/VLBW group. Furthermore, lower T1w/T2w ratio in left superior temporal gyrus was associated with lower full scale and verbal IQ.

      Conclusions

      Results demonstrate GM T1w/T2w ratio alterations in premature-born adults and suggest altered GM myelination development after premature birth with lasting and functionally relevant effects into early adulthood.

      Keywords

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