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Disrupted dynamic interactions between large-scale brain networks in cocaine users are associated with dependence severity

  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ Contributed equally to this study
    Tianye Zhai
    Footnotes
    ∗ Contributed equally to this study
    Affiliations
    Neuroimaging Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
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  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ Contributed equally to this study
    Hong Gu
    Footnotes
    ∗ Contributed equally to this study
    Affiliations
    Neuroimaging Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
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  • Betty Jo Salmeron
    Affiliations
    Neuroimaging Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
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  • Elliot A. Stein
    Affiliations
    Neuroimaging Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
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  • Yihong Yang
    Correspondence
    Corresponding Author: Yihong Yang, PhD, Neuroimaging Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA Tel: +1 443-740-2648
    Affiliations
    Neuroimaging Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ Contributed equally to this study
Published:September 02, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.08.010

      Abstract

      Background

      Substance use disorder (SUD) is conceptualized as a neuropsychiatric disease with multifaceted phenotypic manifestations including disrupted interactions between brain networks. While current understanding of brain network interactions is mostly based on static functional connectivity, accumulating evidence suggests that temporal dynamics of these network interactions may better reflect brain function and disease related dysfunction. We thus investigated brain dynamics in cocaine use disorder and assessed their relationship with cocaine dependence severity.

      Methods

      Using a time-frame analytical approach on resting-state functional MRI data of 54 cocaine users and 54 age and sex matched healthy controls, we identified temporally recurring brain network configuration patterns, termed brain states. With Menon’s “triple network model” as a guide, we characterized these state dynamics by quantifying their occurrence rate and transition probability. Group differences in the state dynamics and their association with cocaine dependence were assessed.

      Results

      Three recurrent brain states with spatial patterns resembling the default-mode, salience, and executive-control networks were identified. Compared with healthy controls, cocaine users showed a higher default-mode state occurrence rate and higher probability of transitioning from the salience state to the default-mode state, with the former being attributed to the latter. A composite state transition probability negatively correlated with cocaine dependence severity.

      Conclusions

      Our results provide novel evidence supporting for the “triple network model”. While confirming hyperactivity of default-mode network in cocaine users, our findings indicate the failure of salience network in toggling between default-mode and execute-control networks in cocaine use disorder.

      Keywords

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