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Brainmarker-I Differentially Predicts Remission to Various Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatments: A Discovery, Transfer, and Blinded Validation Study

Open AccessPublished:February 28, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.02.007

      Abstract

      Background

      Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by neurobiological heterogeneity, possibly explaining why not all patients benefit from a given treatment. As a means to select the right treatment (stratification), biomarkers may aid in personalizing treatment prescription, thereby increasing remission rates.

      Methods

      The biomarker in this study was developed in a heterogeneous clinical sample (N = 4249) and first applied to two large transfer datasets, a priori stratifying young males (<18 years) with a higher individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF) to methylphenidate (N = 336) and those with a lower iAPF to multimodal neurofeedback complemented with sleep coaching (N = 136). Blinded, out-of-sample validations were conducted in two independent samples. In addition, the association between iAPF and response to guanfacine and atomoxetine was explored.

      Results

      Retrospective stratification in the transfer datasets resulted in a predicted gain in normalized remission of 17% to 30%. Blinded out-of-sample validations for methylphenidate (n = 41) and multimodal neurofeedback (n = 71) corroborated these findings, yielding a predicted gain in stratified normalized remission of 36% and 29%, respectively.

      Conclusions

      This study introduces a clinically interpretable and actionable biomarker based on the iAPF assessed during resting-state electroencephalography. Our findings suggest that acknowledging neurobiological heterogeneity can inform stratification of patients to their individual best treatment and enhance remission rates.

      Keywords

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